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Lions Roar : March 2012
57 SHAMBHALA SUN MARCH 2012 So did the Dalai Lama, Engle, and Varela, who decided to found the Mind & Life Institute to organize future dialogues. Since 1987 there have been twenty-three more, each with its own theme, and a number of books based on the proceedings, starting with Gentle Bridges, edited by Jeremy Hayward and Francisco Varela from discussions in the very first dialogue. From the beginning, Varela understood the historic signifi- cance of these meetings. As a scientist, he knew that science was becoming the paradigm through which the public under- stood reality and through which social policy was being made. As a Buddhist, he knew that observing the mind through meditation was a viable way to study reality that was shut out of scientific inquiry. Varela was particularly interested in bringing cognitive scien- tists together with Buddhist practitioners. “It was a natural place for contemplatives to offer insight,” says Diego Hangartner. “Cognitive scientists are interested in how we perceive things.” However, as Hangartner notes, many cognitive scientists were primarily interested in looking at consciousness from outside the experience of it. Varela hoped that the Dalai Lama would be able to convince scientists to expand their inquiries to include the study of subjective phenomena that might not fit into their materialist view. In short, to include the reality of mind—and the experts who have been studying it for 2,500 years. First Person Science THE DALAI LAMA argues that a full study of the mind must include the first person empiricism of the contemplative traditions. A COMPREHENSIVE SCIENTIFIC STUDY of consciousness must embrace both third person and first person methods: it cannot ignore the phenomenological reality of subjective experience but must observe all the rules of scientific rigor. So the critical question is this: Can we envision a scientific meth- odology for the study of consciousness whereby a robust first person method, which does full justice to the phenomenology of experience, can be combined with the objectivist perspective of the study of the brain? Here I feel a close collaboration between modern science and the contemplative traditions, such as Buddhism, could prove beneficial. Buddhism has a long history of investigation into the nature of mind and its various aspects—this is effec- tively what Buddhist meditation and its critical analysis consti- tute. Unlike that of modern science, Buddhism’s approach has been primarily from first-person experience. The contemplative method, as developed by Buddhism, is an empirical use of introspection, sustained by rigorous train- ing in technique and robust testing of the reliability of experi- ence. All meditatively valid subjective experiences must be verifiable both through repetition by the same practitioner and through other individuals being able to attain the same state by the same practice. If they are thus verified, such states may be taken to be universal, at any rate for human beings. The Buddhist understanding of mind is primarily derived from empirical observations grounded in the phenomenology of experience, which includes the contemplative techniques of meditation. Working models of the mind and its various aspects and functions are generated on this basis; they are then subjected to sustained critical and philosophical analysis and empirical testing through both meditation and mindful observation. For example, if we want to observe how our per- ceptions work, we may train our mind in attention and learn to observe the rising and falling of perceptual processes on a moment by moment basis. This is an empirical process that results in firsthand knowledge of a certain aspect of how the mind works. We may use that knowledge to reduce the effect of emotions such as anger or resentment (indeed, meditation practitioners in search of overcoming mental affliction would wish to do this), but my point here is that this process offers a first person empirical method with relation to mind. ♦ From The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and Spirituality by His Holiness the Dalai Lama. © 2005 by The Dalai Lama. Used by permission of The Doubleday Broadway Publishing Group, a division of Random House, Inc. The Dalai Lama, Francisco Varela, Alan Wallace and Jerome Engel viewing a live demo of an EEG machine wired to a person’s head at the fourth Mind and Life conference (Sleeping, Dreaming, and Dying) in Dharamsala, 1992.